Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


Soap Production Using Vacuum Reactive Distillation: Batch Model

[ Vol. 13 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Raghad Fareed Almilly*, Maha Muhyi Alwan, Wasan Omar Noori and Maha Hadi Alhassani   Pages 390 - 397 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Introduction: Although soap industry is known from hundreds of years, the development accompanied with this industry was little. The development implied the mechanical equipment and the additive materials necessary to produce soap with the best specifications of shape, physical and chemical properties.

Objectives: This research studies the use of vacuum reactive distillation VRD technique for soap production.

Methods: Olein and Palmitin in the ratio of 3 to 1 were mixed in a flask with NaOH solution in stoichiometric amount under different vacuum pressures from -0.35 to -0.5 bar. Total conversion was reached by using the VRD technique. The soap produced by the VRD method was compared with soap prepared by the reaction - only method which is known as the conventional method. The two kinds of soap were compared in yield, the reaction temperature, the volume of the co-product liquid and its composition, FTIR analysis, the density and the time of production.

Results: It was shown that the yield of soap using VRD was 2.45 times that produced by the reaction - only method. The process temperature was reduced 0.11 times. The volume of the co-product liquid was reduced 95.76% consisting of water only. The analyses of FTIR were compared with a commercial soap regarded as a standard and they showed identical functional groups. Very little difference in density was recorded. The time of production was shorter than the conventional method giving another priority to the VRD method.

Conclusion: It was beneficial to adopt VRD method in soap production in batch mode. Continuous mode of soap production using VRD method may be investigated in future study.

Keywords:

Development in the soap industry, esterification reaction, palmitin and olein, saponification reaction, soap production, vacuum reactive distillation.

Affiliation:

Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad

Graphical Abstract:



Read Full-Text article