Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


Flame Photometry Characterization Procedure for Sodium Content in Brazilian Bentonites for Nanotechnology Applications

[ Vol. 12 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Hellen S. Santos, Karine L. Buarque da Silva, Ariel E. Zanini, Danilo S. Coelho, Marcelo Embiruçu and Marcio L.F. Nascimento*   Pages 122 - 129 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Background: Brazilian bentonites have a low sodium concentration in their interlayer structure. This is a problem with most of the industrial applications that demand the characteristics of sodium bentonites.

Objective: As a solution for this limitation, sodium carbonate is added to in natura clays, promoting ion exchange between other interlayer cations with sodium.

Methods: A process was used based on the principle of Stokes’ Law (BR Patent 10 2013 016298). For this, we used four glass columns in series, in which a high water flow was considered to obtain purified clays. It was proposed as a simple, fast and economical method for sodium determination that was developed and applied in bentonites by flame photometry. The equipment calibration was performed with a NaCl standard solution in concentrations between 80 and 110 ppm. The bentonites in the suspension were separated by means of centrifugation, being thus analyzed by a flame photometer.

Results: The samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s specifications to contain detectable amounts of sodium by means of flame photometry. A resulting linear relationship between the average value readings versus sodium standard content solution (both in ppm) was obtained by the logarithmic scale, as expected.

Conclusion: The procedure allowed to define a method that could be used in the sodification control process, thus making it possible to differentiate the sodium cation content in terms of the value of cation exchange capacity (CEC) from bentonite. X-ray analysis of in natura and the sodified clays showed nanostructural differences related to interlayer distance.

Keywords:

Clay, bentonite, sodium procedure characterization, flame photometry, nanotechnology, cation exchange capacity.

Affiliation:

PROTEC/PEI-Graduate Program in Industrial Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia, Rua Aristides Novis 2, Federacao, Salvador, BA, CEP: 40210-630, PROTEC/PEI-Graduate Program in Industrial Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia, Rua Aristides Novis 2, Federacao, Salvador, BA, CEP: 40210-630, PROTEC/PEI-Graduate Program in Industrial Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia, Rua Aristides Novis 2, Federacao, Salvador, BA, CEP: 40210-630, PROTEC/PEI-Graduate Program in Industrial Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia, Rua Aristides Novis 2, Federacao, Salvador, BA, CEP: 40210-630, PROTEC/PEI-Graduate Program in Industrial Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia, Rua Aristides Novis 2, Federacao, Salvador, BA, CEP: 40210-630, PROTEC/PEI-Graduate Program in Industrial Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnic School, Federal University of Bahia, Rua Aristides Novis 2, Federacao, Salvador, BA, CEP: 40210-630

Graphical Abstract:



Read Full-Text article